The picture above labels the main parts of a tree, and they are described below.
Teachers: Please adapt the description of a tree to the age group of the children you are teaching.
ROOTS: These grow underground and are often cover the same ground area as the crown of branches and leaves. Roots physically support the tree and root hairs take up water and nutrients from the soil to enable the tree to live and grow. In cold and dry periods, the roots act as a store for nutrients. Tree roots bind the soil together and help to prevent soil erosion and landslides.
CROWN: This is the part of the tree which includes the branches, twigs, leaves and flowers, fruits and nuts. The crown provides shade for the roots, produces energy from the sun’s rays and controls the release of water vapour, carbon dioxide and oxygen from the tree.
Leaves – are the food factory of a tree. They contain a green substance called chlorophyll, which enables the leaves to use energy from the sun’s rays, carbon dioxide from the air and water brought from the roots to make energy in the form of glucose. This process for making glucose is called photosynthesis. It is used to make new cells and enables the tree to grow. Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the air. It locks up carbon in cellulose, which forms the walls of the cells of the tree. As part of this process, trees release oxygen into the air, to enable humans and animals to breathe.
Branches – support the twigs and help to spread out the leaves so they can have access to sunlight. They also bring water and nutrients to the leaves and store extra glucose.
TRUNK – the trunk supports the crown of the tree and transports water and nutrients, through a network of small tubes, from the roots to the branches and leaves.